The Tribal Villages of Sumba
Tribal western Sumba is without question one of the most fascinating cultural regions in all of Indonesia. Eclipsed by more famous destinations such as Papua, Sulawesi, Sumatra and Flores, remote Sumba is primarily visited by travelers with a keen interest in ethno-tourism. Way off the beaten path – or any path for that matter – you don’t just end up here by mistake; you come here specifically to take in the unique Sumbanese tribal art, architecture and cultural heritage.
Sumba is a tough place to travel: there are few hotels, roads can be terrible, English is non-existent and the tribal communities can be somewhat volatile. Conflicts can break out at any time, even in the larger population centers such as Waikabubak. In fact, on our way to dinner one evening in Waikabubak, we were turned back because a battle had broken out between two villages and mere meters ahead people were hacking each other to death with their swords. This ain’t Disneyland.
Despite the difficulty, a visit to Sumba is incredibly rewarding. While traditionally constructed tribal villages are increasingly rare on other islands, western Sumba is covered with traditional villages featuring Sumba’s unique megalithic tombs and stunning high-roofed hut architecture. These villages are a sight to behold.
Communicating with villagers is very difficult. Without a guide, basic Indonesian language skills are essential as well as a lot of patience and understanding. A good guide would be very useful to learn about the intricacies of the local culture. Thomas and I, however, decided to take off and explore on our own. Because we decided to go it alone, our focus was less on the details of the Sumbanese culture and more on an experiential exploration of tribal life, carefully feeling our way through their taboos and the complexities of their belief system. This will definitely not be the best choice for everyone. For people who do not have much experience with tribal cultures, such an approach can be awkward or, perhaps in some locations, even dangerous.
In theory, when entering traditional villages in Sumba, visitors are escorted to the head elder (kepala desa) where you are expected to offer gifts such as betel nut (sirih pinang). In practice, everybody and their brother might come out and demand gifts. While experienced travelers might initially dismiss this process as just another touristy village demanding some baksheesh, in reality most villages in Sumba are not that touristed. The process seems to be more of a modern interpretation of some traditional gift-giving ritual that applies to Indonesians and other locals as well. Unfortunately, betel nuts aren’t cheap and visitors would go through a mountain of cash if they bought betel nuts for everyone. These days, many visitors buy packs of cigarettes and pass out individual cigarettes instead. I’m no big fan of Philip Morris, but these gifts are a necessity to enter traditional villages. Occasionally, in some frequently visited villages, they may ask for cash as well (that’s when those baksheesh instincts might be more valid.)
Whereas villagers in Lombok, Flores and Alor are quite hospitable, the Sumbanese seem more aloof and often somewhat suspicious. (In a later post we’ll explain a bit better why that might be.) Despite the coolness, the fascinating villages are incredible windows into the past with massive megalithic tombs, table-like spirit stones (kateda) used for offerings to the dead, and skull trees (andung), where headhunters once hung their trophies.
But what really grabs visitors’ attention is the impressive Sumbanese hut architecture. Absurdly vertical roofs soar out of the broad-based, more functional open-sided living areas. Beams and lintels are often carved and porches are frequently decorated with lines of buffalo skulls. Unfortunately, like termites gnawing away at a masterpiece, art collectors are taking their toll on Sumba’s unique heritage.
Despite that toll, there is much here to thrill visitors with an interest in traditional culture. Local dress remains a part of daily life to some degree. Older women often go topless dressed only in their traditional ikat (a heavy, ornately woven sarong). Younger women, however, usually wear ikats with T-shirts. Men like to wear their ikat bunched up around their waist as a kind of belt over western clothing. Some men also wear a cloth chaotically tied around their head. Almost every man, young and old, carries a sword, which they unfortunately still use when tempers flare.
Don’t worry, not everyone is violent. 🙂
That violence is such a part of Sumbanese tradition that it has been ritualized into festivals such as the Pasola. Each year, the exotic Pasola season begins when village shamans along the coast determine that a specific sea worm (nyale) has arrived. Upon the arrival of the ocean worms, villages organize bloody boxing matches in which the fighters wrap their hands with razor-sharp grasses rather than using gloves. After the fights, Sumba’s warriors take part in ritual lance battles often injuring and occasionally killing each other in the process. (You kind of have to wonder if Gene Roddenberry based Klingons on the Sumbanese.)
So who are these shamans who announce the arrival of the worms? Sumbanese follow a religion called Marafu characterized by a belief in marapu, a collective term for various gods and spiritual beings. While many people here claim to be Christian, we discovered just how tenuous that claim was when a local pointed at a Christian grave marked with a cross and said, “Muslim grave.” (I think it’s fair to say that even the most superficial Christians would recognize a cross.)
Religious realities are best displayed in Sumbanese death rituals. When a person dies, the family members must sacrifice large numbers of horses and buffalo to appease the marapu and allow the dead person to enter the invisible world. Families spend enormous sums on these sacrifices and the economic toll on surviving family members can be devastating. It’s an interesting topic to take up with more modern Sumbanese living in towns.
Sumbanese culture is beyond fascinating. For this reason, Sumba is – without a doubt – one of the most unique and rewarding regions we have experienced in Indonesia. While change is definitely coming to Sumba, there are few places on the planet where you can encounter such deeply traditional people and explore such authentic villages.
WARNING: As is the case with environmentally fragile Komodo island, certain cruise lines have discovered Sumba and plans are underway to include traditional villages here on Indonesian itineraries. At least one ship has already visited dumping hundreds of people at once on a couple of Sumba’s culturally sensitive and unprepared villages. Such plans are BEYOND ABSURD and large-scale commercial exploitation of Sumbanese village life is WHOLLY inappropriate. Any cruise line considering Sumba visits should be strongly encouraged to drop such plans.